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Oct 25 2019

Types and Functions of Integrated Circuits


I Types of Integrated Circuits

1.1 Classified by Function

1.2 Classified by Fabrication Process

1.3 Classified by the Degree of Integration

1.4 Classified by Conductivity

II Different Function Analog

Integrated Circuits

2.1 Integrated Operational Amplifier

2.2 Voltage Regulator Integrated Circuit

2.3 Audio Integrated Circuit

2.4 Television Integrated Circuit

2.5 Keyboard Integrated Circuit

2.6  CMOS Integrated Circuit

I Types of Integrated Circuits

1.1 Classified by Function

According to its different functions, it can be divided into two major categories: analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits. The former is used to generate, amplify and process various analog electrical signals and the latter is used for various digital electrical signals. The analog signal refers to a signal whose amplitude is continuously varied over time. For example, a person speaks into a microphone, and an audio signal output by the microphone is an analog signal, and an audio signal received by the radio, a tape recorder, an audio device, and a television, and a television signal are also analog signals. A digital signal is a signal that is discretely measured in time and amplitude. For example, the telegraph code signal is pressed to generate an electrical signal, and the generated electrical signal is discontinuous. This kind of discontinuous electrical signal is generally called electric pulse or pulse signal, and the signal running in the computer is the pulse signal, but these pulse signals represent the exact number, so it is also called digital signal. In electronic technology, signals that are not continuously changed other than analog signals are generally collectively referred to as digital signals. At present, in the maintenance of home appliances or in general electronic production, the main signals encountered are analog signals; then, the most contact will be analog integrated circuits.

Integrated Circuit

1.2 Classified by Fabrication Process

According to different fabrication processes, integrated circuits can be divided into three types: semiconductor integrated circuits, film integrated circuits and hybrid integrated circuits. 

Semiconductor integrated circuit with certain circuit function uses semiconductor processing technology to fabricate components including resistors, capacitors, transistor, diode, etc. on a silicon substrate. Membrane integrated circuits fabricate passive devices such as resistors and capacitors on glass, ceramic or other insulating objects in the form of films. The range of values for passive components can be made very wide and the accuracy can be made very high. However, the current technical level cannot make active devices such as crystal diodes and transistors in the form of "films", thus greatly limiting the application range of the film integrated circuits. In practical applications, semiconductor integrated circuits or active devices such as diodes and transistors of discrete components are mostly added to the passive film circuit to form a whole, which is a hybrid integrated circuit. Whats more, the film integrated circuit is further classified into a thick film integrated circuit (having a film thickness of 1 μm to 10 μm) and a thin film integrated circuit (having a film thickness of 1 μm or less) depending on the thickness of the film. Mainly used in the repair of home appliances and general electronic production are semiconductor integrated circuits, thick film circuits and a small number of hybrid integrated circuits.

film integrated circuits

1.3 Classified by the Degree of Integration

According to the degree of integration, it can be divided into small, medium-scale, large-scale and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. 

For analog integrated circuits, due to high process requirements and complicated circuits, it is generally considered that 50 or less components are integrated into small-scale integrated circuits, 50-100 components are integrated into medium-scale, and more than 100 components are integrated into large-scale. For digital integrated circuits, it is generally considered to integrate 1 to 10 equivalent gates/pieces or 10 to 100 components/pieces as small-scale integrated circuits, integrating 10 to 100 equivalent gates/pieces or 100 to 1000 components/pieces for medium scale. Further, 100 to 10,000 equivalent gates/pieces or 1000 to 100,000 components/pieces are integrated into large-scale, and more than 10,000 equivalent gates/pieces or more than 100,000 components/pieces are integrated into ultra-large-scale.

small-scale integrated circuits

1.4 Classified by Conductivity

Divided into two types of bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to different conductivity types. The former has good frequency characteristics, but with large power consumption and complicated manufacturing process. Most of the analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits have TTL, ECL, HTL, LSTTL, and STTL types. Most analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits of TTL, ECL, HTL, LSTTL, and STTL types fall into this category. The latter has a low working speed, but with high input impedance, small power consumption, simple manufacturing process, and easy integration in large-scale. Their main product is a MOS type integrated circuit, which can further divided into NMOS, PMOS, and CMOS types.

bipolar integrated circuits

NMOS integrated circuit is an integrated circuit formed of N-channel MOS devices on a semiconductor silicon wafer; It is the electron that participates in conduction. PMOS integrated circuit is an integrated circuit formed of P-channel MOS devices on a semiconductor silicon wafer; It is the hole that participates in conduction. And the CMOS type is an integrated circuit composed of NMOS transistors and MOS transistors, which is called a complementary MOS integrated circuit, and is abbreviated as a CMOS integrated circuit.

In addition to the various types of integrated circuits described above, there are now many specialized integrated circuits called ASICs.

II Different Function of Analog Integrated Circuits

2.1 Integrated Operational Amplifier

The integrated op amp is a high-gain, direct-coupled amplifier that contains hundreds of transistors, resistors, and capacitors, but is as large as a small power transistor and consumes only a few milliwatts to a few hundred milliwatts. It usually consists of three basic parts: the input stage, the intermediate amplification stage and the output stage. In addition to the ten, one input and output terminals, the operational amplifier has ten, one power supply terminal, external compensation circuit terminal, zero adjustment terminal, phase compensation terminal, common ground terminal and other additional terminals. Its magnification depends on the external feedback resistor, which is very convenient for usage. There are general-purpose operational amplifiers such as uA709, 5G922, FC1, FC31, F005, 4E320, 8FC2, SG006, BG305, etc, general type III (F748, F108, XFC81, F008, 4E222, etc), low power amplifier(UPC253, 7XC4, 5G26, F3078, etc.), low noise operational amplifier(like F5037 and XFC88 ), high speed operational amplifier(Such as domestic models: F715, F722, 4E321, F318, foreign: uA702) and high voltage operational amplifier(like F1536,BG315 and F143 ). There are other types of op amp including current-mode, single-supply, transconductance, electrostatic, program control and the like.

2.2 Voltage Regulator Integrated Circuit

The voltage regulator integrated circuit is also called integrated power supply, and its circuit form mostly adopts series voltage regulation. Compared to discrete component regulators, integrated regulators are small, high performance, easy to use and reliable. The types of integrated voltage regulators are: multi-terminal adjustable, three-terminal adjustable, three-terminal fixed and single-chip switching mode.

The multi-terminal adjustable integrated voltage regulator has high precision and low price, but with small output power, and more leads, which is inconvenient for use. This integrated regulator can be connected with the corresponding external components as needed to achieve current limiting and power protection. There are differences in the basic circuit forms of similar products at home and abroad, but the basic principles are similar. Excellent integrated regulators such as W2 series, WB7 series, WA7 series, BG11, etc. are made in China.

The three-terminal adjustable output integrated voltage regulator has high precision, small output voltage ripple, and the output voltage is continuously adjustable between 1.25V and 35V. Its models have W117, W138, LM317, LM138, LMl96 and other models. While the three-terminal fixed output integrated voltage regulator is a series-regulated voltage regulator, and its circuit has only input, output and common three terminals, which is convenient to use. Its models have W78 positive voltage series and W79 negative voltage series. The switch-type integrated voltage regulator is a new type of regulated power supply. Its working principle is different from the above three types. It is a converter that converts from DC to AC and then DC with adjustable output voltage and high efficiency. Its models have AN5900, HA17524 and other models, which are widely used in televisions, electronic instruments and other equipment.

2.3 Audio Integrated Circuit

Audio integrated circuits are continuously developed with the development of radios, tape recorders, and audio equipment. People began to demand versatility, high power and high fidelity for audio circuits. For example, a single radio or tape recorder, the circuit must have frequency conversion, detection. Mid-range, low-level, AGC, power amplifier and voltage regulation functions. The sound integrated circuit technology continues to develop, using digital transmission and processing, so that the various electro-acoustic indicators of the sound system continue to improve. For example, the pulse code modulation recorder and a CD player can make the signal-to-noise ratio and stereo separation better, and minimize the distortion. The audio integrated circuit is divided into high and medium frequency amplifier integrated circuits, power amplifier integrated circuits, low noise preamplifier integrated circuits, stereo decoding integrated circuits, single radio integrated circuits, recorder integrated circuits, driver integrated circuits and special functions integrated circuit according to its own circuit functions.

High and medium frequency amplifier ICs are small and compact, with high automatic gain, good control characteristics, and low distortion. They are widely used in radios and recorders. Among them, the types of amplitude modulation integrated circuits are FD304, SL1018, SL1018AM, TB1018 and so on. FM integrated circuits are TA7303, TDA1576, LA1165, LA1210, TDA1062, etc. There are several functions of AM frequency conversion, AM detection and FM frequency discrimination that are set in AM and FM shared integrated circuits. The FM stereo receiver has a dedicated stereo decoding circuit. The similar (after the 70s) products have LA3350, LA3361, HA11227, AN7140, BA1350, TA7343P and other models. Monolithic integrated circuits have become a popular monolithic audio integrated circuit in the world. A radio equipped with a monolithic radio integrated circuit low cost and easy to debug. Among them, ULN2204 AM radio integrated circuit has complete functions and can work in the voltage range of 3V~12V. Similar models are HA12402, TA7613, ULN2204A and so on.

audio integrated circuits

Special function integrated circuits include display drive circuit, motor steady speed circuit, automatic selection circuit and noise reduction circuit, etc. The dual-column 5-point LED level display driver IC can simultaneously drive 10 LEDs. It is a common integrated circuits used in high-end recorders, radios, CD players and other audio equipment for volume indication, AC/DC level indication, AC/DC power supply voltage indication. For example, models such as SL322 and SL325 produced in China, LB1405 and TA7666P in foreign countries. 6-point, 7-point and 9-point LED level display driver IC models are SL326, SL327, LB1407, LB1409 and so on.

In addition to the above, the special function integrated circuit has an automatic selection integrated circuit, a noise reduction integrated circuit and the like. For example, there are NE464, LM1101, LA2730, uPC1180, HA12045, HA12028 and other models, and some circuit models also have certain compatibility.

2.4 Television Integrated Circuit

There are various types of integrated circuits used in TV sets, and the models are not uniform, but there is a trend toward high integration of single-chip microcomputers and two-chip machines. The integrated circuits used in televisions are listed below:

2.4.1 Sound System Integrated Circuit

The new trend in TV audio systems is the use of TV multi-sound systems and use various monolithic or multi-block TV dual audio signals to process integrated circuits. For example, BL5250 type, BJ5250, DG5250 type sound center amplifier and audio power amplifier integrated circuit for color television sound circuit. And the circuit is 16-pin dual in-line with a heat sink. In the D7176P and uPC1353C audio systems, the amplitude amplification and the limiting amplifier integrated circuit have the characteristics of high gain, stable DC operating point, small detection distortion, good frequency response performance, and large output power. The uPC1353C is identical in function to the AN1353. Its DC volume control range is up to 80dB, the output stage voltage range is 9V to 18V, the distortion is less than 0.6%, and the maximum audio output power is 1.2W to 2.4W. Integrated circuits for audio intermediate frequency(IF) Amp and amplifiers are also available: D7176, TA7678AD, IX0052CE, IX0065CE, AN241P, CA3065, KA2101, LA1365, TA7176, KC583, and the like.

2.4.2 Line Scanning Integrated Circuit

The performance of the line scan integrated circuit is better than that of the discrete component circuit, and some integrated scanning circuit systems use a digital automatic synchronization circuit to obtain a stable field frequency signal, thereby ensuring the stability of interlaced scanning. Meanwhile, the "field sync" potentiometer adjustment can be omitted, which improves the degree of automation. Like D7609P, LA1460, TA7609P, TB7609 and other models, their circuit functions are: synchronous separation, field output, field oscillation, AFT, line oscillation protection.

The main functions of the D002 type (domestic), HA11669 type (foreign) circuit are line oscillation, line excitation; the main functions of D004 type (domestic), KC581C type (foreign) circuit are field oscillation, field output; the main functions of D7242, TA7242P, KA2131, uPC1031Hz, LA1358, uPC1378h and other models are field oscillation, field output, field excitation; the main functions of the uPC1031Hz circuit are: field oscillation and field output.

2.4.3 Image IF Amp and Video Amp Integrated Circuit

Early IF channel integrated circuits used three integrated circuits to perform functions such as IF amplification, video detection and AFT. At present, there are integrated circuits that compress three systems that they are image if amplification, video or audio IF amplification and line scanning into one chip, which simplifies the circuit and brings greater convenience to use and debugging.

Such integrated circuits are: D1366C, SF1366, uPC1366, CD003, HA1167, D7607AP, TA7607, AN5132, CD7680CD, HA1126D, HA11215A, TB7607, TA7611AP, LA1357N, AN5150, M51353P, etc.

2.4.4 Color Decoding Integrated Circuit

The function of the color decoding circuit is to restore the color signal and make the image color normal. The early color decoding integrated circuits were completed by several circuits, such as domestic 5G3108, 5G314, 7CD1, 7CD2, 7CD3, etc.; later, single-chip PAL color decoding integrated circuits, such as TA7193AP/P, TA7644AP/P, IX02lCE, uPC1400c, M51338SP, M51393AP, IX0719CE and AN5625, were used. Among them, AN5625, uPC1400C and other integrated circuits apply digital filtering delay network to integrate all small signal processing into one circuit, which make the circuit smaller and more functional.

2.4.5 Power Integrated Circuit

At present, the power control of most TV sets uses integrated circuits, and the circuit types are switch type and series type. The integrated circuits controlled by the switching regulator power supply have these models: W2019, IR9494, NJM2048, AN5900, etc. The series DC regulator ICs are: STR455, STR451, LA5110, LA5122, STR5404 and other models.

2.4.6 Remote Control Integrated Circuit

The remote control integrated circuit is divided into a remote control transmitting IC and a remote control receiving IC. For example, the integrated circuits for Hitachi CEP-323D color TV and Furi HFC-323 color TV are uPD1943G and LA7234 remote control integrated circuits. uPD1934G is a remote control transmitting circuit that emits infrared light signals; LA7224 is a remote control receiving integrated circuit.

remote control integrated circuit

The uPD1943G is a 20-pin dual-in-line package (also available in 22-column package), its main parameters and features are as follows:

(1) Belongs to CMOS circuit, and has similar features to M50119;

(2) The power supply voltage is 3V, and the power supply current is 0.lmA to 1mA;

(3) Output current is 13mA, power consumption is 0.25W;

(4) It can be connected with 4×8 keys for a total of 32 control functions.

The M50142P and uPC1373H are a pair of remote control integrated circuits. Main parameters and characteristics of uPC1373H:

(1) The power supply voltage is 6V to 14.4V;

(2) The current varies from 1.3 mA to 3.5 mA;

(3) Allowable dissipated power is 0.27W;

(4) Its main features, structure, and pinout are the same as those of the LA7224;

(5) A 150k resistor is often connected to ground from the 4th pin.

2.5 Keyboard Integrated Circuit

The keyboard integrated circuit has 5G2208, 5G001, 5G002, CW93520, LM6402, M112, Z8611 and other models. Its shape is only small button size, but the internal contains oscillator note generator preamplifier circuit, so it can play 22~61 basic notes. The 5G005 is a scale generator, and the LM8071 integrated circuit can be used as a reverberation master scale generator, which is one of the core components of the keyboard. The M208 is a monolithic keyboard NMOS integrated circuit with a short array of 61 keys and an anti-jitter circuit. The YM3812 is a new type of audio source integrated circuit for electronic keyboard.

2.6  CMOS Integrated Circuit

In digital integrated circuits, we only introduce CMOS circuits in MOS digital integrated circuits. Because in some small appliances, CMOS integrated circuits are used more widely.

2.6.1 Characteristics of CMOS Integrated Circuits

The structure and fabrication process of CMOS circuits are different from those of TTL circuits, and the power consumption of CMOS integrated circuits is very low. Generally, the static average power consumption of small-scale CMOS integrated circuits is less than 10uW, which is the lowest power consumption among various practical circuits. For example, the average power consumption of a TTL integrated circuit is 10mw, which is 10 times that of a CMOS circuit, but the dynamic power consumption of a CMOS integrated circuit increases as the operating frequency increases.

The input characteristics of the CMOS circuit are represented by the input current and capacitance. Since the input resistance of the circuit is very high, the input circuit is generally less than 0.1uA; and the input capacitance is the sum of various stray capacitances, generally around 5pF.

The output characteristics of a CMOS circuit depend on the form of the output line and the parameters of the output tube. In fact, most CMOS circuits can use output drive current, logic level, and state transition time to represent output characteristics.

CMOS integrated circuits

2.6.2 Types of CMOS Integrated Circuits

There are many types of CMOS circuits, but the most common ones are gate circuits.Logic gates in CMOS circuits are NOT gates, AND gates, NAND gates, NOR gates, OR gates, XOR gates, XOR gates, Schmitt trigger gates, buffers, drivers, etc.

The NOT gate is also called the inverter, which is a logic gate with only one input and one output.

The NOT gate is also called the inverter, which is a logic gate with only one input and one output. When the input is high level, the output is low level; conversely, the output is high level. So it is reflected that the output and input are always inverted or complementary. The AND gate has 2 or more inputs and 1 output. When all inputs are high, the output is also high; the output is low as long as there is one or more inputs low.

The NAND gate is when the one or more inputs are low, the output is high; only when all inputs are high, the output is low.

The OR gate has one output, two or more inputs. The output is low when all inputs are low. The output is low when all inputs are low. If one or more inputs are high, phase change level can be output. The NOR gate circuit outputs a high level when the input terminals are at a low level; as long as one or more inputs are at a high level, the output is low. The XOR gate has 2 inputs and 1 output. When only one of the two inputs is high, the output is high; when the input is low or both high, the output is low.

The XOR gate is also called the "same or the door." The XOR gate has only 2 inputs and 1 output. When both inputs are low or high, the output is high; when only one of the two inputs is high, The output is low.

The gate circuit composed of the most basic circuit has disadvantages such as poor anti-interference performance and asymmetry. In order to overcome these shortcomings, an inverter can be added as an buffer stage at the output or input; or an inverter can be added to the output and input as a buffer stage. The gate circuit thus constructed is called a gate circuit with a buffer.

The gate output of the buffered output is an inverter, and the output drive capability is determined only by the tube characteristics of the output stage, regardless of the logic state of each input. And the output drive capability of a gate without a buffer is related to the input state. On the other hand, the transfer characteristic of the gate circuit with a buffer is at least multiplied by the 3-level transfer characteristic, so that its conversion area is narrow, the shape is close to the ideal rectangle. Whats more, it does not change with the number of input terminals, and the anti-interference can also increase the power supply voltage by 10%. In addition, the gate circuit with buffer has the advantages of symmetrical output waveform, large AC voltage gain, narrow bandwidth and relatively small input capacitance. However, due to the addition of the buffer level, there are also some disadvantages such as an increase in the transmission delay time. Therefore, the gate circuit with a buffer is suitable for use in a high-speed circuit system. 


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