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Sep 24 2019

Integrated Circuit and Motherboard: Is the Motherboard an Integrated Circuit ?



What is an Integrated Circuit


Advantages of Integrated Circuits


Disadvantages of Integrated Circuit


The Role of Integrated Circuits


What is a Motherboard


Principle of Computer Motherboard


The Relationship of IC and Motherboard

What is an Integrated Circuit

An integrated circuit is a miniature electronic device or component. The components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors and inductors required in a circuit are interconnected in a certain process on a small piece or several small pieces of semiconductor chip or dielectric substrate with the wiring. After that, it should be encapsulated in a shell and then a micro structure with required circuit functions is borned. All of the components have been structurally integrated, indicating the electronic components have been more miniaturization, low power consumption, intelligence and high reliability. Integrated circuit is represented by the letter "IC" in the circuit. The inventors of the integrated circuit are Jack Kilby (integrated circuit based on Ge) and Robert Noyce (integrated circuit based on Si). Most applications in the semiconductor industry today are silicon-based integrated circuits.


Advantages of Integrated Circuits

1, Simple. The design, debugging and installation of the whole circuit are simplified because of the integrated circuit.

2, High cost performance. Compared with discrete component circuit, the performance index of the whole machine circuit composed of integrated circuit is higher. Compared with discrete electronic component circuit, the cost and price of integrated circuit are lower.

3, High reliability. Integrated circuit has the advantage of high reliability, which improves the reliability of the whole machine circuit, and improves the circuit performance and consistency. In addition, after the adoption of integrated circuit, the welding spot in the circuit is greatly reduced, the possibility of virtual welding is reduced, so that the whole machine circuit works more reliably.

4, Less energy. Integrated circuit also has the advantages of small power consumption, small size and economy. The same function circuit, the power consumption of IC is much smaller than that of discrete electronic components.

5, Low failure rate. Because the fault rate of integrated circuit is lower than that of discrete components, the fault rate of whole circuit is reduced.

Disadvantages of Integrated Circuit

1, The disassembly of IC circuits is difficult. There are many pins in the integrated circuit, which brings great difficulties to repair and disassemble the integrated circuit, especially for the four-column integrated circuit with many pins. The disassembling is more difficult than building.

2, The cost of repair increased. When a part of an integrated circuit fails, it is usually necessary to replace the whole circuit, increasing the repair cost.

3, Inconvenient fault judgment. Compared with discrete electronic component circuit, it is not convenient to judge fault reason accurately for integrated circuits when repairing some special faults.

The Role of Integrated Circuits

1, Reduce the use of components. With the birth of integrated circuit, the small scale integrated circuit reduces the number of content components and improves the technology of scattered components.

2, Product performance has been effectively improved. Put integrating components together not only reduces the interference of external electrical signals, but also greatly improves the circuit design and speed of operation.

3, More convenient. A function corresponds to a circuit, a function is concentrated into an integrated circuit. It sounds like the object-oriented programming (OOP). You want to use this method and you can call this function (integrated circuit).

IC technology includes chip manufacturing technology and design technology. It can be reflected in the capabilities of processing equipment, processing technology, packaging and testing, batch production and design innovation.

What is a  Motherboard

The mainboard is divided into commercial motherboard and industrial motherboard. It is one of the most basic and important components of microcomputer. The motherboard is generally a rectangular circuit board, which contains the main circuit system of the computer. Generally, there are components such as BIOS chip, I/O control chip, key and panel control switch interface, indicator light plug-in, expansion slot, motherboard and dc power supply plug-in of plug-in card.

The Motherboard 

Principle of Computer Motherboard

1, Power startup: generally, all the power sources sold in the market are ATX specifications, with it, the host board startup in two-stage. When the computer is powered on, the computer don’t startup firstly but the signal from standby power supply (+ 5 VSB) and power start signal (PSON#) are sent by ATXPOWER. And when you tap the startup button on the control panel, the motherboard will get PSON# signal reduced to low potential, then ATXPOWER will startup the computer as it receive the signal change from high potential to low potential. The two-stage startup let the computer more humanized management through achieving the fuctions of power standby, MODE startup, software shutdown, etc.. With the two-stage boot, although you have powered on the computer, the computer will not startup but only when you tap the startup button on the motherboard.

2, System CLK: when the power is turned on, the system must follow the same steps, which we call "synchronization". In order to conform to the synchronization signal, we send the quartz crystal to each component after frequency doubling to achieve its purpose.

3, RESET: When the power supply is normal, the system will immediately send a RESET signal. The purpose is to reinitialize the data inside the Chip, so that the system can start operation from the original value of the data. Before RESET, the system will check whether the power supply of each part is normal, and then send a RESET signal in sequence.

4, Post: After the above work, the CPU will send out the first address to northbridge, the northbridge will immediately send the address to southbridge, then the southbridge sends it to the BIOS. And BIOS will send the corresponding data back reversely to the CPU according its internal store data. When the CPU receives the data, the corresponding instructions are analized out in accordance with the data content to control M/B action. We usually call this section POST.

The Relationship of IC and Motherboard

There is an example to simplify the explanation of the relationship. Taking the LCD TV motherboard as the example.

The relationship of LCD TV motherboard and integrated circuit is: the motherboard contains integrated circuits, motherboard is composed of integrated circuits. The integrated circuit is part of the motherboard.

LCD TV main board is related to the fuction such as image decoding, logic operation, audio and etc.. It is made up of many integrated blocks integrated circuit to complete, different functions by different integrated circuit to complete.

Generally, LCD TV out of fault with two condition, either the screen fault or the motherboard fault. And the main board is composed of large scale integrated circuits, it often can’t be repaired by non-professional personnels, and most maintenance personnel just replace it with the new whole board.

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