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Jul 15 2019

Development and Applications of Power Technology

Catalog

Article core

Power Technology

I.Introduction to power technology

II.The development of power technology

1.High frequency conversion is the mainstream of power technology development

2.Guidance on new theories and new technologies

3.Support for new devices and new materials

Intelligent control

4.The modularization and integration of the power circuit

5.The standard specification of power equipment

III.Power management applications

1.Power management

2.Power management IC classification

3.Technology trends in power management

4.Power management IC application field

V. Conclusion

 

I. Introduction

 

Electrical energy is currently the most important form of energy in human production and life. The rational, efficient, accurate and convenient use of electrical energy remains a major problem for human. Power supplies using power electronics have revolutionized the use of electrical energy. In the world, the proportion of electricity consumption converted and regulated by power electronic devices has become an important indicator for measuring the level of electricity consumption. Currently, the average number of indicators in the world is 40%. According to the National Electric Power Research Institute, by 2010, it will reach 80% which poses a new challenge to power technology.

 

In the 1980s, the concept of power electronics integration in power supply manufacturing was proposed. It is clear that integration is the future direction of power electronics technology and the most promising way to solve the obstacles in the development of power electronics technology. Power integrated circuits have gradually become the dominant devices in power semiconductor devices, pushing power technology to a new era of power management. The power management integrated circuit is divided into two aspects: a voltage regulator and an interface circuit. It is because so many integrated circuits (ICs) enter the power supply field that power technology at this stage is more often referred to as power management.

 

II. The development of power technology

 

Power technology is a multi-disciplinary and edge-crossing technology that uses power semiconductor devices, integrated power conversion technology, modern electronic technology, and automatic control technology. With the development of science and technology, power technology is closely related to many fields such as modern control theory, materials science, electrical engineering, and microelectronics. At present, power technology has gradually developed into a multidisciplinary and comprehensive technical discipline. It plays a key role in providing high quality, high efficiency, and high reliability power to modern communications, electronic instrumentation, computing, industrial automation, power engineering, defense, and certain high technologies.

 

In the 1940s, the transistor was introduced. In less than a decade, the thyristor was born on the basis of the maturity of the transistor, thus unveiling the prelude to the development of power technology. For half a century, the development of power technology has continued to innovate.

 

1. High frequency conversion is the mainstream of power technology development

 

The essence of power technology is power conversion. The electric energy conversion technology is used to convert a primary power source such as a commercial power supply or a battery into a secondary power source suitable for various electric power objects. Switching power supply plays an important role in power supply technology. From 20 kHz to high stability, large capacity, small size, high frequency switching power supply with switching frequency up to megahertz, it provides a material basis for high frequency conversion and promotes the development of power supply technology. The most direct benefits of high frequency are the reduction of raw material consumption, miniaturization of power supply units, increase of power density, speed up the response of the system, further improve the efficiency of the power supply unit, effectively suppress environmental noise pollution, and make the power supply more widely available. The field, especially in the high-tech field, has further expanded its range of applications.

 

2. Guidance on new theories and new technologies

 

Circuit topology theory such as single-tube buck, boost circuit, resonant conversion, phase shift resonance, soft-switching PWM, zero-transition PWM; new technologies such as computer-aided design (CAD), power factor correction, active hoop, parallel current sharing, synchronous rectification, high-frequency magnetic amplifier, high-speed programming, remote sensing remote control, and microcomputer monitoring guide the development of power supply technology.

 

3. Support for new devices and new materials

 

Thyristor (SCR), turn-off thyristor (GTO), high power transistor (GTR), insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), power field effect transistor (MOSFET), smart ICBT (IPM), MOS gated thyristor (MCT), static induction transistor (SIT), ultra-fast recovery diode, non-inductive capacitor, non-inductive resistor, new ferrite, amorphous and microcrystalline soft magnetic alloy, nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy and other components promote the upgrading of power products. Research and development of gallium arsenide (GaAs), semiconductor diamond, silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor materials are in progress.

 

4. Intelligent control

 

The control circuit, drive circuit, and protection circuit adopt integrated components. The adoption of the DSP (digital signal processor) enables full digital control. The control method uses a software control method consisting of a microprocessor and a single chip microcomputer to achieve a higher degree of intelligence and further improve the reliability of the power supply device.

 

5, The modularization and integration of the power circuit

 

The monolithic power supply and the modular power supply replace the whole power supply. The power integration technology simplifies the structure of the power supply. It has been widely used in communication and power, and a new power supply system--distributed power supply is used to diversify the centralized power supply system. Further development of circuit integration is to do system integration, integrating information transmission, control and power semiconductor devices all together, increasing reliability.

 

6, The standard specification of power equipment

 

Power equipment needs to enter the market. Today's market is an integrated market that surpasses local financing. It must comply with common guidelines such as energy, environment, electromagnetic compatibility, and trade agreements. Power equipment must accept safety, EMC, environment, quality system, etc. Demonstration of multiple standard specifications.

 

III. Power management applications

 

1, power management

 

The development of power technology is based on the development of thyristors (SCRs). In 1979, a power field effect transistor (MOSFET) was invented. In 1986, a high voltage integrated circuit (HVTC) was produced, which was the earliest power supply integrated circuit (power IC). It is precisely because power supply integrated circuits have gradually become the dominant devices in power semiconductor devices, pushing power technology to a new era of power management.

 

Power management semiconductors clearly emphasize the location and role of power management integrated circuits (power management ICs, referred to as power management chips) from the included devices. The power management semiconductor consists of two parts, a power management integrated circuit and a power management discrete semiconductor device.

 

Power management integrated circuits include many types, which are roughly divided into voltage adjustment and interface circuits. The voltage eliminator includes a linear low-dropout regulator (LOD), as well as a series of positive and negative output circuits, and no switching-mode circuits of the pulse width modulation (PWM) type. Due to technological advances, the physical size of digital circuits in integrated circuit chips has become smaller and smaller, so that the working power supply has developed toward low voltage, and a series of new voltage regulators have emerged. Interface circuits for power management mainly include interface drivers, motor drivers, power field effect transistor (MOSFET) drivers, and high voltage/high current display drivers.

 

Power Management Discrete semiconductor devices include some traditional power semiconductor devices, which can be divided into two categories, one containing rectifiers and thyristors; the other is triode type, including power bipolar transistors, including MOS structures. Power field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs).

 

To a certain extent, it is precisely because of the massive development of power management ICs that power semiconductors have been renamed as power management semiconductors. It is precisely because so many integrated circuits (ICs) enter the power supply field that people are more often referred to as power management at this stage.

 

2, power management IC classification

 

The main part of the power management semiconductor is the power management IC, which can be roughly classified into the following eight types.

 

2.1, AC / DC modulation IC. It contains a low voltage control circuit and a high voltage switching transistor.

AC / DC modulation IC

2.2, DC / DC modulation IC. Includes boost/buck regulators, as well as charge pumps.

DC / DC modulation IC

2.3, PFC pre-modulation IC. A power input circuit with power factor correction is provided.

PFC pre-modulation IC

2.4, PWM / PFM control IC. It is a pulse frequency modulation and/or pulse width modulation controller for driving an external switch.

PWM control IC

2.5, linear modulation IC (such as linear low-dropout regulator LDO, etc.). Includes forward and negative regulators, as well as low dropout LDO modulation tubes.

Low Drop Voltage Regulator

2.6, Battery charging and management IC. Including battery charging, protection and power display ICs, as well as battery data communication "smart" battery IC.

battery charging and management IC

2.7. Hot-swap control IC (except for the effect of inserting or removing another interface from the working system).

Hot-swap control IC

2.8, MOSFET or IGBT gate driver IC.

Mosfet gate driver ICs


Among these power management ICs, voltage regulation ICs are the fastest growing and most productive part. Various power management ICs are basically associated with some related applications, so more types of devices can be listed for different applications.

 

3. Technology trends in power management

 

The technical trend of power management is high efficiency, low power consumption, and intelligence.

 

Improving performance involves two different aspects: on the one hand, it wants to maintain the overall efficiency of energy conversion, and also wants to reduce the size of the device; on the other hand, it protects the size and greatly improves the performance.

 

In AC/DC conversion, low on-state resistance meets the need for more efficient adapters and power supplies in computer and telecom applications. In terms of power circuit design, the general standby energy consumption has dropped below 1W, and the power efficiency can be increased to more than 90%. To further reduce existing standby power consumption, new IC manufacturing process technologies and breakthroughs in low-power circuit design are needed.

 

More and more systems will require multiple output regulators. Examples include lithium-ion rechargeable batteries with multiple output and power path control, multi-output DC/DC converters, and switching regulators with dynamically adjustable output voltages.

 

From power control to battery monitoring and battery management, they are included to promote the intelligent level of power management ICs.

 

4, Power management IC application

 

Power management ICs are used in portable products (mobile phones, digital cameras, notebook computers, MP3 players, mobile hard drives, etc.), digital consumer electronics (high definition televisions, LCD TVs and panels, DVD players), computers, Communication network equipment, industrial equipment and automotive electronics. Among them, consumer electronics is the largest application area of power management chips.

 

All of these applications and products require the appropriate power management techniques to get the most out of them. The IC solution needs to address product differentiation, power management efficiency, extremely small product size, and diversified product features.

 

V. the conclusion

 

Many modern high-tech technologies are related to the transformation and control of basic parameters such as voltage, current, frequency, phase and waveform of the power grid. Power technology can achieve precise control and high-efficiency processing of these parameters, especially the frequency conversion of high-power electric energy, which provides powerful support for the development of many high-tech. The development of power ICs has pushed power technology to a new era of power management. The advancement of power technology and its industry will certainly provide an important means for saving energy, reducing material consumption and improving production efficiency, and will have far-reaching impact on modern production and modern life.

 


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